ដកស្រង់ ពី ការសិក្សា សំរាប់ខ្មែរ
❑ កំណត់អត្តសញ្ញា បរិថាន (Identifying environments) ដែលប៉ះពាល់ ចំណាត់ចែងក្រុមហ៊ុន (that impact organizations)
❑ ស្វែងយល់ កត្តាខាងក្រៅ (external factors) ដែលឥទ្ធិពល លើតួនាទីគ្រប់គ្រង (managers’ roles)
❑ បកស្រាយ កត្តាខាងក្នុង (internal factors) ដែលប៉ះពាល់ដល់ ភារកិច្ចគ្រប់គ្រង (affect managerial duties)
❑ ស្វែងយល់ ហេតុអ្វី មួយស្ថាប័ន (an organization) ត្រូវតែសំរប ទៅបរិថាន (must adapt to the environment)
មួយបរិថាន នៃអ្នកគ្រប់គ្រង (A manager’s environment) ត្រូវបានកើតឡើង ពីរាល់កត្តាផ្លាស់ប្តូរទៀងទាត់ ( is made up of constantly changing factors) —
ទាំងខាងក្រៅ និង ខាងក្នុង (both external and internal) — ដែលប៉ះពាល់ ដំណើរការងារ នៃចំណាត់ចែងស្ថាប័ន (that affect the operation of the organization)។
បើមួយអ្នកប្រជែងថ្មី លេចឡើង ក្នុងទីផ្សារ (appears in the marketplace), បរិថានគ្រប់គ្រង (the managerial environment) ត្រូវបានរងការប៉ះពាល់ (is affected)។ If key clients take their business elsewhere, managers feel the impact. And if technological advances date an organization’s
current methods of doing business, once again, the managerial environment has to adapt.
Although managers can’t always control their environments, they need to be aware of any changes that occur, because changes ultimately affect their daily decisions and actions. For example, in the airline industry, deregulation opened up the market to new airlines, forcing existing airlines to be more competitive. Managers in existing airlines couldn’t afford to ignore the cheaper airfares and increased service that resulted. Not only did managers have to identify the new challenge, but they also had to act quickly and efficiently to remain competitive.
In this chapter, the two types of environments that affect management and how organizations adapt to them are discussed.
បរិថាន ខាងក្រៅ (The External Environment)
All outside factors that may affect an organization make up the external environment. The external environment is divided into two parts:
- Directly interactive: This environment has an immediate and firsthand impact upon the organization. A new competitor entering the market is an example.
- Indirectly interactive: This environment has a secondary and moredistant effect upon the organization. New legislation taking effect may have a great impact. For example, complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act requires employers to update their facilitiesto accommodate those with disabilities.
The following sections describe these two forces in more detail.
Directly interactive forces
Directly interactive forces include owners, customers, suppliers, competitors, employees, and employee unions. Management has a responsibility to each of these groups. Here are some examples:
- Owners expect managers to watch over their interests and provide a return on investments.
- Customers demand satisfaction with the products and services they purchase and use.
- Suppliers require attentive communication, payment, and a strong working relationship to provide needed resources.
- Competitors present challenges as they vie for customers in a marketplace with similar products or services.
- Employees and employee unions provide both the people to do the jobs and the representation of work force concerns to management.
Indirectly interactive forces
The second type of external environment is the indirectly interactive forces.
These forces include sociocultural, political and legal, technological, economic, and global influences. Indirectly interactive forces may impact one organization more than another simply because of the nature of a particular business. For example, a company that relies heavily on technology will be more affected by software updates than a company that uses just one computer. Although somewhat removed, indirect forces are still important to the interactive nature of an organization.
The sociocultural dimension is especially important because it determines the goods, services, and standards that society values. The sociocultural force includes the demographics and values of a particular customer base.
- Demographics are measures of the various characteristics of the people and social groups who make up a society. Age, gender, and income are examples of commonly used demographic characteristics.
- Values refer to certain beliefs that people have about different forms of behavior or products. Changes in how a society values an item or a behavior can greatly affect a business. (Think of all the fads that have come and gone!)
The political and legal dimensions of the external environment include regulatory parameters within which an organization must operate. Political parties create or influence laws, and business owners must abide by these laws. Tax policies, trade regulations, and minimum wage legislation are just a few examples of political and legal issues that may affect the way an organization operates.
The technological dimension of the external environment impacts the scientific processes used in changing inputs (resources, labor, money) to outputs (goods and services). The success of many organizations depends on how well they identify and respond to external technological changes.
For example, one of the most significant technological dimensions of the last several decades has been the increasing availability and affordability of management information systems (also known as MIS; see Chapter 2 for more information). Through these systems, managers have access to information that can improve the way they operate and manage their businesses.
The economic dimension reflects worldwide financial conditions. Certain economic conditions of special concern to organizations include interest rates, inflation, unemployment rates, gross national product, and the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies.
A favorable economic climate generally represents opportunities for growth in many industries, such as sales of clothing, jewelry, and new cars. But some businesses traditionally benefit in poor economic conditions. The alcoholic beverage industry, for example, traditionally fares well during times of economic downturn.
The global dimension of the environment refers to factors in other countries that affect U.S. organizations. Although the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling are the same whether a company operates domestically or internationally, managers encounter difficulties and risks on an international scale. Whether it be unfamiliarity with language or customs, or a problem within the country itself (think mad cow disease), managers encounter global risks that they probably wouldn’t have encountered if they had stayed on their own shores.
The Internal Environment
An organization’s internal environment is composed of the elements within the organization, including current employees, management, and especially corporate culture, which defines employee behavior. Although some elements affect the organization as a whole, others affect only the manager.
A manager’s philosophical or leadership style directly impacts employees.
Traditional managers give explicit instructions to employees, while progressive managers empower employees to make many of their own decisions.
Changes in philosophy and/or leadership style are under the control of the manager. The following sections describe some of the elements that make up the internal environment.
Organizational mission statements
An organization’s mission statement describes what the organization stands for and why it exists. It explains the overall purpose of the organization and includes the attributes that distinguish it from other organizations of its type.
A mission statement should be more than words on a piece of paper; it should reveal a company’s philosophy, as well as its purpose. This declaration should be a living, breathing document that provides information and inspiration for the members of the organization. A mission statement should answer the questions, “What are our values?” and “What do we stand for?” This statement provides focus for an organization by rallying its members to work together to achieve its common goals.
But not all mission statements are effective in America’s businesses. Effective mission statements lead to effective efforts. In today’s quality-conscious and highly competitive environments, an effective mission statement’s purpose is centered on serving the needs of customers. A good mission statement is precise in identifying the following intents of a company:
Customers — who will be served
Products/services — what will be produced
Location — where the products/services will be produced
Philosophy — what ideology will be followed
Company policies are guidelines that govern how certain organizational situations are addressed. Just as colleges maintain policies about admittance, grade appeals, prerequisites, and waivers, companies establish policies to provide guidance to managers who must make decisions about circumstances that occur frequently within their organization. Company policies are an indication of an organization’s personality and should coincide with its mission statement.
The formal structure of an organization is the hierarchical arrangement of tasks and people. This structure determines how information flows within the organization, which departments are responsible for which activities, and where the decision-making power rests.
Some organizations use a chart to simplify the breakdown of its formal structure. This organizational chart is a pictorial display of the official lines of authority and communication within an organization. (Chapter 6 describes the organizing function, and Chapter 7 offers examples of organizational charts.)
The organizational culture is an organization’s personality. Just as each reader of this book has a distinct personality, so does each organization.
The culture of an organization distinguishes it from others and shapes the actions of its members.
Four main components make up an organization’s culture:
Rites and rituals
Values are the basic beliefs that define employees’ successes in an organization.
For example, many universities place high values on professors being published. If a faculty member is published in a professional journal, for example, his or her chances of receiving tenure may be enhanced. The university wants to ensure that a published professor stays with the university for the duration of his or her academic career — and this professor’s ability to write for publications is a value.
The second component is heroes. A hero is an exemplary person who reflects the image, attitudes, or values of the organization and serves as a role model to other employees. A hero is sometimes the founder of the
organization (think Sam Walton of Wal-Mart). However, the hero of a company doesn’t have to be the founder; it can be an everyday worker, such as hard-working paralegal Erin Brockovich, who had a tremendous impact on the organization.
Rites and rituals, the third component, are routines or ceremonies that the company uses to recognize high-performing employees. Awards banquets, company gatherings, and quarterly meetings can acknowledge distinguished employees for outstanding service. The honorees are meant to exemplify
and inspire all employees of the company during the rest of the year.
The final component, the social network, is the informal means of communication within an organization. This network, sometimes referred to as the company grapevine, carries the stories of both heroes and those who have failed. It is through this network that employees really learn about the organization’s culture and values.
A byproduct of the company’s culture is the organizational climate. The overall tone of the workplace and the morale of its workers are elements of daily climate. Worker attitudes dictate the positive or negative “atmosphere” of the workplace. The daily relationships and interactions of employees are indicative of an organization’s climate.
Resources are the people, information, facilities, infrastructure, machinery, equipment, supplies, and finances at an organization’s disposal. People are the paramount resource of all organizations. Information, facilities, machinery equipment, materials, supplies, and finances are supporting, nonhuman resources that complement workers in their quests to accomplish the organization’s mission statement. The availability of resources and the way that managers value the human and nonhuman resources impact the organization’s environment.
Philosophy of management is the manager’s set of personal beliefs and values about people and work and as such, is something that the manager can control. As outlined in Chapter 2, McGregor emphasized that a manager’s philosophy creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. Theory X managers treat employees almost as children who need constant direction, while Theory Y managers treat employees as competent adults capable of participating in work-related decisions. These managerial philosophies then have a subsequent
effect on employee behavior, leading to the self-fulfilling prophecy.
As a result, organizational philosophies and managerial philosophies need to be in harmony.
Managerial leadership styles The number of coworkers involved within a problem-solving or decisionmaking
process reflects the manager’s leadership style. Empowerment means delegating to subordinates decision-making authority, freedom, knowledge, autonomy, and skills. Fortunately, most organizations and managers
are making the move toward the active participation and teamwork that empowerment entails.
When guided properly, an empowered workforce may lead to heightened productivity and quality, reduced costs, more innovation, improved customer service, and greater commitment from the employees of the organization.
In addition, response time may improve, because information and decisions need not be passed up and down the hierarchy. Empowering employees makes good sense because employees closest to the actual
problem to be solved or the customer to be served can make the necessary decisions more easily than a supervisor or manager removed from the scene. Adapting to Environments
The role of a manager is to monitor and shape the internal and external environments and to anticipate changes and react quickly to them.
Managers can monitor the environments through boundary spanning —
a process of gathering information about developments that could impact the future of the organization. Managers can access information through a variety of sources: customer and supplier feedback; professional, trade, and government publications; industry associations; and personal contacts.
Managers can also actively work to influence their external environments through lobbying, voting, and using the media to influence public opinion.
Internal elements comprise the organization itself. Internal change arises from activities and decisions within the organization. Managers can gather information by conducting a thorough evaluation of the internal operations of the organization. The purpose of this internal analysis is to identify the organizational assets, resources, skills, and processes that represent either strengths or weaknesses. Strengths are aspects of the organization’s operations that represent potential competitive advantages (any aspect of an organization that distinguishes it from its competitors in a postive way), while weaknesses are areas that are in need of improvement.
Several key areas of the organization’s operations should be examined in an internal analysis. Key areas to be assessed include the marketing, financial, research and development, production, and general management capabilities. These areas are typically evaluated in terms of the extents to which they foster quality and support the competitive advantage sought by the organization.
1. An organization that regularly affects and is affected by various and constantly changing forces can be described as a(n) ______.
a. natural force
b. sociocultural force
c. open system
d. closed system
2. Of the following, which is a directly interactive force in an organization’s external environment?
a. technological forces
c. economic forces
3. Which of the following is not an indirectly interactive force in an organization’s external environment?
a. sociocultural forces
b. competitive forces
c. legal/political forces
d. technological forces
4. The term organizational climate defines ______.
a. how the employees feel about working for the organization
b. how organizations share values, beliefs, habits, norms, philosophies, experiences, and behaviors
c. what the company does best
d. a key concept that guides managers and their actions
5. Boundary spanning sources include all of the following except ______.
c. government statistics
d. core values
Answers: 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. a 5. a